Overview

TOTAL STATION

A total station (TS) or total station theodolite (TST) is an electronic/optical instrument used for surveying and building construction. It is an electronic transit theodolite integrated with electronic distance measurement (EDM) to measure both vertical and horizontal angles and the slope distance from the instrument to a particular point, and an on-board computer to collect data and perform triangulation calculations.

Applications

A total station is an optical instrument commonly used in construction, surveying and civil engineering. It is useful for measuring horizontal angles, vertical angles and distance — it does this by analyzing the slope between itself and a specific point.

A high-quality total station camera combines surveying, imaging and high-speed 3D scanning into one precise and reliable instrument. It blends the latest field technologies with advanced technical features to create a tool that is trusty and dependable in demanding field situations while producing accurate results for analysis and engineering.

Course Highlights:

  • WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF TOTAL STATION
  • COMPONANT OF TOTAL STATION
  • IMPORTANT OPERATIONS OF TOTAL STATION
  • USES OF TOTAL STATION
  • ADVANTAGES OF USING TOTAL STATION
  • APPLICATION
Technical Feature

Technical Feature

  • Mechanical total stations: Mechanical total stations are reliable and accurate, and they make surveying quick and easy. They do not offer remote control operation or automated features, however, and operation typically requires two people.
  • Robotic total stations:These total stations allow for more technological convenience. They offer extended remote control abilities, they need only one operator, and they allow for increased safety in challenging terrain because of their unique ability to operate at a distance.
  • Prism total stations: Both mechanical and robotic total stations come in prism models. Prism models are more traditional than reflector-less models, and they are still more commonly used. They use prisms to reflect infrared waves and then determine angles and distance by measuring the prism’s location.
  • Reflector-less total stations:Both mechanical and robotic total stations come in reflector-less versions, as well. These newer models of total stations are useful for taking measurements in challenging circumstances. They can work in difficult terrain or in places you can’t reach on foot, and they don’t require the use of a prism.

So, what are the features of a total station? Total stations also offer many different features to enhance their usefulness in different applications, such as:

  • Superior EDM for high accuracy and long-range prism measurements.
  • High-accuracy scanning and scanning range technology.
  • High-resolution site imagery technology.
  • Imaging solutions like video robotic control and photogrammetric measurements.
  • Integrated surveying with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers.
  • Seamless field-to-office integration with software for data processing, analysis and use.
  • Optional solutions for locating lost or stolen equipment.

A total station comprises an EDM, theodolite, and an inbuilt microprocessor.

For storing the data, a memory card is also provided.

It consists of a battery that is provided in the battery socket.

A typical total station consists of the following components:

  1. Handle
  2. Handle Screwing Screw
  3. Data Input/ Output Terminal
  4. Instrument Height Mark
  5. Battery Cover
  6. Operation Panel
  7. Tribrach Clamp/ Shifting Clamp
  8. Base Plate
  9. Levelling Foot Screw
  10. Circular Level Adjusting Screws
  11. Circular Level
  12. Display
  13. Objective Lens
  14. Tubular Compass Slot
  15. Optical Plummet Focusing Ring
  16. Optical Plummet Reticle Cover
  17. Optical Plummet Eyepiece
  18. Horizontal Clamp
  19. Horizontal Fine Motion Screw
  20. Data Input/ Output Connector
  21. External Power Source Connector
  22. Plate Level
  23. Plate Level Adjusting Screw
  24. Vertical Clamp
  25. Vertical Fine Motion Screw
  26. Telescope Eyepiece
  27. Telescope Focusing Ring
  28. Peep Sight
  29. Instrument Center Mark

The important operations that can be performed using a total station can be listed as follows:

a. Measurement of Distance

An essential component of the total station is Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) which is responsible for the distance measurement.

The measuring range of the EDM can vary from 2.8km to 4.2km.

A typical EDM is capable of measuring the distance with an accuracy ranging between 5mm to 10mm per km of measurement.

The EDM is equipped with an automatic target recognizer. The distance measured by the total station is always the sloping distance from the instrument station to the object.

b. Measurement of Angle

Another important operation performed by the total station is the measurement of angle.

Usually, any suitable direction must be taken as the reference direction for the measurement of the horizontal angles.

While, in case of the vertical angles, the vertically upward direction i.e. the zenith is taken as the reference direction.

c. Processing of Data

The processing of data in the total station is done utilizing the microprocessor that is inbuilt on it.

The inbuilt microprocessor is capable of averaging the multiple observations taken. The microprocessor can compute the horizontal distance as well as the location coordinates (X, Y, Z).

In the modern total station, the microprocessor can apply even the pressure corrections and the temperature corrections when the temperature and the pressure values are provided.

 

d. Display of Output

The output or the computed results are displayed in the total station utilizing the electronic display unit.

The display unit can display the computed horizontal distance, vertical distance, horizontal and vertical angles, elevation differences between points, and the location coordinates of the required points.

e. Electronic Record Keeping (Electronic Book)

The total station is capable of storing the data in an electronic book which is similar to a compact disc of the computer.

Such an electronic book can store data ranging from 2000 points to 4000 points.

The data stored in the electronic book of the total station can be unloaded by the surveyor to a computer.

Total stations are particularly useful for performing functions like these:

  • Topographic surveys
  • Land and title surveys
  • Roadway and corridor surveys
  • Design surveys
  • Infrastructure surveys
  • Volumetric surveys to measure stockpile volumes
  • Power line inspections
  • Utility design surveys
  • Crash scene investigations
  • Crime scene investigations
  • Mine and quarry surveys
  • Tank calibration or inspection

Using total stations for measurements provides several unique advantages:

  • Accuracy:How accurate is a total station? Total stations are highly accurate — to a fraction of an arc second as well as measure distances to hundredths of a foot over thousands of feet.
  • Ease of use: Total stations are easy and intuitive to use. They can take simultaneous distance and horizontal measurements, and they make it easy to calculate coordinates. So, operators can spend more of their time and energy on critical engineering and analytical problems that demand their attention.
  • Speed:Total stations collect information quickly, so operators can get in and out of the field efficiently.
  • Convenience: Total stations offer quick and convenient setup. With a total station, an operator can take multiple surveys from one location.
  • Effortless CAD interface:It’s easy to download survey data to a computer-assisted drawing (CAD) program to avoid time-consuming data manipulation.

A total station is an optical instrument commonly used in construction, surveying and civil engineering. It is useful for measuring horizontal angles, vertical angles and distance — it does this by analyzing the slope between itself and a specific point.

A high-quality total station camera combines surveying, imaging and high-speed 3D scanning into one precise and reliable instrument. It blends the latest field technologies with advanced technical features to create a tool that is trusty and dependable in demanding field situations while producing accurate results for analysis and engineering.