Brick work is an important part of construction work done with the help of bricks and cement mortar. It is done with different quality of bricks with different ratios of cement mortar according to the requirement.


As the most common bricks are rectangular prisms, six surfaces are named as follows:

  • Top and bottom surfaces are called Beds
  • Ends or narrow surfaces are called Headers or header faces
  • Sides or wider surfaces are called Stretchers or stretcher faces[7]
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Mortar terminology- showing perpends and bed.

Mortar placed between bricks is also given separate names with respect to their position. Mortar placed horizontally below or top of a brick is called a bed, and mortar Placed vertically between bricks is called a perpend.

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Solid brick

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Single frogged brick

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Double frogged brick

Cellular brick

Perforated brick

A brick made with just rectilinear dimensions is called a solid brick. Bricks might have a depression on both beds or on a single bed. The depression is called a frog, and the bricks are known as frogged bricks. Frogs can be deep or shallow but should never exceed 20% of the total volume of the brick. Cellular bricks have depressions exceeding 20% of the volume of the brick. Perforated bricks have holes through the brick from bed to bed, cutting it all the way. Most of the building standards and good construction practices recommend the volume of holes should not exceeding 20% of the total volume of the brick

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Technical Feature

Technical Feature

Brick masonry is a highly durable form of construction. It is built by placing bricks in mortar in a systematic manner to construct solid mass that withstand exerted loads. There are several types of bricks and number of mortars which  can be used to construct brick masonry. The bond in brick masonry, which adheres bricks together, is produced by filling joints between bricks with suitable mortar. Special cautions shall be practiced while mortar is mixed and placed since it greatly affect the performance and durability of masonry structure.

  • The walls of a building are generally constructed by bricks and the method of joining bricks in different fashions is called brick work.
  • Brick is a basic building unit which is in the form of rectangular block in which length to breadth ratio is 2 but height can be different.
  • Normal size (nominal size)
  • 9”×4.” ×3“
  • Architectural size (Working size)
  • 81⅟16″ x 4⁵⁄₁₆” x 21⅟16″
A brick has three dimensions: width (sometimes referred to as thickness), height and length. Although brick can be laid in six different orientations (see Figure 1), these dimensions as referenced apply to a brick laid as a stretcher. Height and length are sometimes called face dimensions, because these are the dimensions exposed when the brick is laid as a stretcher. Bricks are the subject of British Standard BS 3921.
A standard metric brick has coordinating dimensions of 225 x 112.5 x 75 mm (9”×4.” ×3“) called nominal size and working dimensions (actual dimensions) of 215 x 102.5 x 65 mm (8.5“ * 4 *2.5) called architectural size  
Modular brick are sized such that the specified dimension plus the intended mortar joint thickness equal a modular dimension. Generally, modular dimensions are whole numbers without fractions that result in modules of 4 inch. or 8 inch. for imperial units or 100 mm for SI units. A modular brick has a set of nominal, specified and actual dimensions as referenced above. A non-modular brick has a set of specified and actual dimensions but does not have nominal dimensions. Brick are available in many sizes and are referred to by many different names, depending on region. In addition, the name of a brick and its size, whether modular or non-modular, can vary depending on the manufacturer. Modular brick and their nominal and specified dimensions are shown in Figure 2. Non-modular brick and their specified sizes are shown in Figure 3.

Common types used in are:

  • Stretcher Bond
  • Header Bond
  • English Bond
  • Flemish Bond
  • FROG
  • BATS

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